Aims: To review studies on the associations of incontinence and special needs in children and adults and to outline future directions in research and clinical care.
Materials and methods: A review of literature was conducted. Open questions and future directions were discussed during the ICI-RS meeting in 2014.
Results: Special needs comprise a wide variety of conditions and disabilities. Individuals with special needs carry a greater risk for all types of incontinence. There is a high tendency for incontinence to persist from childhood into adulthood. Many people do not receive adequate medical care for their incontinence.
Conclusions: More detailed research is needed, especially in the adult population with special needs. Assessment and treatment of incontinence should be offered routinely to all those with special needs.
Keywords: ICI-RS; daytime urinary incontinence; faecal incontinence; intellectual disability; neurodevelopmental disorders; nocturnal enuresis; special needs.
© 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.