Prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and diabetes among Mexican adults: findings from the Mexican Health and Aging Study

Ann Epidemiol. 2016 Mar;26(3):163-70. doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2015.12.006. Epub 2016 Jan 12.


Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine the prevalence and determinants of prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and diabetes among Mexican adults from a subsample of the Mexican Health and Aging Study.

Methods: We examined 2012 participants from a subsample of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Measures included sociodemographic characteristics, body mass index, central obesity, medical conditions, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, and vitamin D. Logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and self-reported diabetes.

Results: Prevalence of prediabetes, undiagnosed, and self-reported diabetes in this cohort was 44.2%, 18.0%, and 21.4%, respectively. Participants with high waist-hip ratio (1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-2.45) and high cholesterol (1.85, 95% CI = 1.36-2.51) had higher odds of prediabetes. Overweight (1.68, 95% CI = 1.07-2.64), obesity (2.38, 95% CI = 1.41-4.02), and high waist circumference (1.60, 95% CI = 1.06-2.40) were significantly associated with higher odds of having undiagnosed diabetes. Those residing in a Mexican state with high U.S. migration had lower odds of prediabetes (0.61, 95% CI = 0.45-0.82) and undiagnosed diabetes (0.53, 95% CI = 0.41-0.70). Those engaged in regular physical activity had lower odds of undiagnosed diabetes (0.74, 95% CI = 0.57-0.97).

Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes among Mexican adults in this subsample. Findings suggest the need for resources to prevent, identify, and treat persons with prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes.

Keywords: BMI; Central obesity; HbA1c; MHAS; Mexico; Migration; Older adults; Physical activity; Prediabetes; Undiagnosed diabetes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / diagnosis
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / etiology
  • Female
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Mexico / epidemiology
  • Middle Aged
  • Prediabetic State / diagnosis
  • Prediabetic State / epidemiology*
  • Prediabetic State / etiology
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Self Report