Effects of Brain-Computer Interface-controlled Functional Electrical Stimulation Training on Shoulder Subluxation for Patients with Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Occup Ther Int. 2016 Jun;23(2):175-85. doi: 10.1002/oti.1422. Epub 2016 Feb 15.


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of brain-computer interface (BCI)-controlled functional electrical stimulation (FES) training on shoulder subluxation of patients with stroke. Twenty subjects were randomly divided into two groups: the BCI-FES group (n = 10) and the FES group (n = 10). Patients in the BCI-FES group were administered conventional therapy with the BCI-FES on the shoulder subluxation area of the paretic upper extremity, five times per week during 6 weeks, while the FES group received conventional therapy with FES only. All patients were assessed for shoulder subluxation (vertical distance, VD; horizontal distance, HD), pain (visual analogue scale, VAS) and the Manual Function Test (MFT) at the time of recruitment to the study and after 6 weeks of the intervention. The BCI-FES group demonstrated significant improvements in VD, HD, VAS and MFT after the intervention period, while the FES group demonstrated significant improvements in HD, VAS and MFT. There were also significant differences in the VD and two items (shoulder flexion and abduction) of the MFT between the two groups. The results of this study suggest that BCI-FES training may be effective in improving shoulder subluxation of patients with stroke by facilitating motor recovery. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Keywords: brain-computer interface; rehabilitation; shoulder subluxation; stroke.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Brain-Computer Interfaces*
  • Electric Stimulation Therapy / methods*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Occupational Therapy / methods*
  • Paresis / etiology
  • Paresis / rehabilitation
  • Recovery of Function
  • Stroke / physiopathology*
  • Stroke Rehabilitation
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Upper Extremity / physiopathology*