Resilience to chronic stress is mediated by noradrenergic regulation of dopamine neurons

Nat Neurosci. 2016 Apr;19(4):560-3. doi: 10.1038/nn.4245. Epub 2016 Feb 15.


Dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) help mediate stress susceptibility and resilience. However, upstream mechanisms controlling these neurons remain unknown. Noradrenergic (NE) neurons in the locus coeruleus, implicated in the pathophysiology of depression, have direct connections within the VTA. Here we demonstrate that NE neurons regulate vulnerability to social defeat through inhibitory control of VTA DA neurons.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adrenergic Neurons / physiology*
  • Animals
  • Chronic Disease
  • Dopaminergic Neurons / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Neural Inhibition / physiology*
  • Norepinephrine / physiology
  • Resilience, Psychological*
  • Stress, Psychological / genetics
  • Stress, Psychological / metabolism*
  • Stress, Psychological / psychology
  • Ventral Tegmental Area / metabolism
  • Vesicular Monoamine Transport Proteins / deficiency
  • Vesicular Monoamine Transport Proteins / genetics


  • Slc18a2 protein, mouse
  • Vesicular Monoamine Transport Proteins
  • Norepinephrine