Background: Ischemic strokes due to tandem occlusions (TOs) have poor outcomes if they have been treated with only medical interventions. Recent trials demonstrated the effectiveness of endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke due to intracranial occlusions; however, most studies excluded patients with TOs.
Methods: Retrospective review of prospectively collected thrombectomy databases from 3 stroke centers between 2011 and 2015. Consecutive patients with tandem extracranial steno-occlusive carotid disease and intracranial occlusions who underwent emergent thrombectomy were selected. Angiographic and clinical outcomes were analyzed; baseline and procedural variables were included in univariate and multivariate analyses to define the independent predictors of good outcomes (90-day modified Rankin Scale ≤2).
Results: A total of 100 patients met the study inclusion criteria. The mean age was 64.4 ± 12.5, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) 17.6 ± 5.0, time from last known well to puncture 7.3 ± 5.8 h, and Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) 7.5 ± 1.6. Forty percent received intravenous tissue plasminogen activator. Intracranial occlusion sites included: internal carotid artery thrombus, 31%; middle cerebral artery (MCA)-M1, 53%; MCA-M2, 10%; and anterior cerebral artery, 6%. Good outcome was achieved in 42% and successful reperfusion modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (mTICI ≥2B) in 88% of the cases, including complete (mTICI 3) reperfusion in 40%. Severe parenchymal hematoma (PH)-2 occurred in 6% of the patients and 90-day mortality was 20%. In the multivariate analysis, younger age (OR 0.93; 95% CI 0.88-0.98; p = 0.004), lower baseline NIHSS (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.74-0.94; p = 0.003), higher ASPECTS (OR 1.50; 95% CI 1.02-2.19; p = 0.038), and mTICI 3 reperfusion (OR 3.56; 95% CI 1.18-10.76; p = 0.024) were independent predictors of good outcome at 90 days.
Conclusions: Acute endovascular treatment of tandem anterior circulation occlusions yields good outcomes and has similar outcome predictors to isolated intracranial occlusions. Given their comparable clinical behavior, these patients should be included in future trials.
© 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.