Rosuvastatin is a cholesterol-lowering drug that also attenuates the inflammatory process and oxidative stress via the reduction of superoxide anion production. Superoxide anions are metabolized by manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD or SOD2) in the mitochondria. In humans, there is a gene polymorphism where a change of alanine (Ala) to valine (Val) occurs at the 16th amino acid (Ala16Val-SOD2). The VV genotype has been associated with the risk of developing several metabolic diseases, such as hypercholesterolemia. Thus, to further explore this phenomenon, this study investigated the influence of the Val16Ala-SOD2 polymorphism on the lipid profile and inflammatory and fibrinolytic biomarkers of 122 hypercholesterolemic patients undergoing the first pharmacological cholesterol-lowering therapy who were treated with 20 mg rosuvastatin for 120 days. The findings indicate that the VV patients who present a low-efficiency SOD2 enzyme exhibit an attenuated response to rosuvastatin compared with the A-allele patients. The effect of rosuvastatin on inflammatory and fibrinolytic biomarkers was also less intense in the VV patients. These results suggest some pharmacogenetic effects of Val16Ala-SOD2 in hypercholesterolemia treatment.