Primary immunodeficiencies (PID) are rare inherited disorders affecting immune function and can be life-threatening if not treated. Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) offers a curative approach for many of these disorders and gene therapy is increasingly used as an alternative therapeutic strategy for patients lacking a suitable donor. Early diagnosis, improved supportive care and advances in gene and cell therapies have resulted in increased survival rates and improved quality of life. This review describes current strategies employed to improve outcomes in PID, focusing on new developments in HSCT, gene and cell therapy. We also address the challenges associated with newborn screening (NBS) programmes and novel mutations identified through improved diagnostic technology.
Keywords: SCID; gene therapy; haematopoietic stem cell transplant; newborn screening; thymic transplant.