PAI-1 and TNF-α profiles of adipose tissue in obese cardiovascular disease patients

Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015 Dec 1;8(12):15919-25. eCollection 2015.


Obesity as a leading preventable cause of death worldwide is closely linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, a potent inhibitor of plasminogen activation and fibrinolysis, is increased in many clinical situations associated with high incidence of CVD. In the obesity-linked elevation of PAI-1, evidence points to TNF-α as an important regulator of PAI-1 expression in adipose tissue.

Background: This study aims to evaluate mediastinal PAI-1 and TNF-α mRNA levels in adipose tissues (AT) and compare serum levels in obesity with and without coronary artery disease (CAD).

Patients and methods: Obese patients with (n=37) and without CAD (n=20) were included in the study.

Results: The serum levels of PAI-1 and TNF-α were significantly higher in obese patients with CAD compared to obese patients without CAD. PAI-1 mRNA expression was significantly increased in mediastinal adipose tissue (MAT) of obese patients with CAD compared to those without CAD, TNF-α mRNA expressions were found to be higher in EAT (epicardial AT), MAT and SAT (subcutaneous AT) of obese patients with CAD.

Conclusions: The study demonstrated a close direct relationship between TNF-α and PAI-1. PAI-1 mRNA expression strongly correlated positively with serum TNF-α in MAT, and TNF-α expressions with PAI-1 serum levels.

Keywords: PAI-1; TNF-α; adipose tissue; cardiovascular disease.

MeSH terms

  • Adipose Tissue / chemistry*
  • Aged
  • Biomarkers / analysis
  • Coronary Artery Disease / diagnosis
  • Coronary Artery Disease / genetics
  • Coronary Artery Disease / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity / diagnosis
  • Obesity / genetics
  • Obesity / metabolism*
  • Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 / analysis*
  • Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 / blood
  • Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 / genetics
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / analysis*
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / blood
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / genetics
  • Up-Regulation


  • Biomarkers
  • Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1
  • RNA, Messenger
  • SERPINE1 protein, human
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha