Introduction: Uterus transplantation (UTx) is introduced as the first treatment for absolute uterine factor infertility (AUFI), affecting 1:500 fertile aged women. This review presents potential patients, research and human UTx cases.
Sources of data: Published articles and our research experience.
Areas of agreement: The first UTx live births in 2014 established UTx as a possible treatment for AUFI. This was proceeded by 15 years of systematic research.
Areas of controversy: Is a deceased donor UTx as effective as the proven successful live donor UTx?.
Growing points: Human UTx trials will accumulate data on risks, effectiveness and long-term consequences for donors, recipients and children. These should also include aspects of quality of life, psychological well-being and cognitive/neuropsychiatric development of children.
Areas timely for developing research: All new activities in human UTx within the coming years should be conducted as prospective observational studies, and data should also be collected within an international registry.
Keywords: infertility; transplantation; uterus.
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