Epidemiology of extended spectrum beta-lactamases

Infection. Sep-Oct 1989;17(5):347-54. doi: 10.1007/BF01650727.


Beta-lactamases play a major part in resistance, as recently redemonstrated by the emergence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases. Since its discovery in FR Germany, SHV-2 has been reported from four continents and CTX-1 (TEM-3) was established in at least 26 French hospitals. More than 12 other enzymes have been individualized. The newest aspect of resistance was probably underestimated because most strains of enterobacteria (mainly Klebsiella pneumoniae) appeared susceptible to oxyimino-beta-lactams as suggested by MICs or diameters of inhibition zone sizes. The double-disk synergy test between amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and oxyimino-beta-lactams was useful to easily detect two susceptibility patterns (CTX, CAZ). Extended spectrum beta-lactamases isolated among nosocomial isolates of enterobacteria (urines, blood, wound, sputum cultures) mostly from intensive care units have spread through hospitals. If outbreaks were described, numerous serotypes were identified in Klebsiella pneumoniae. In France the distribution of extended spectrum beta-lactamases showed that CTX-1 (TEM-3) was well distributed among ten species unlike SHV-type enzymes (SHV-2, SHV-3, SHV-4) preferentially detected in Klebsiella pneumoniae. A majority of strains produced CAZ-type enzymes in Escherichia coli. Some isolates produced two extended spectrum beta-lactamases. In Tunisia extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing strains were mainly identified among pediatric isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella and Escherichia coli; SHV-2 was predominant but recently CTX-1 and two other types with an isoelectric point of 6.35 and 5.4 (phenotype CTX) were individualized. Because plasmid-encoded, this mechanism was spreading in France among enterobacteria with other resistance markers (e.g. netilmicin, amikacin) for CTX-1 unlike SHV-2.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Bacterial Infections / enzymology
  • Bacterial Infections / epidemiology*
  • Bacterial Typing Techniques
  • Cross Infection / enzymology
  • Cross Infection / epidemiology*
  • Drug Resistance, Microbial*
  • France / epidemiology
  • Germany, West / epidemiology
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria
  • Humans
  • Prevalence
  • Tunisia / epidemiology
  • beta-Lactamases / biosynthesis*


  • beta-Lactamases