Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important transmembrane proteins of the innate immune system that detect invading pathogens and subsequently orchestrate an immune response. The ensuing inflammatory processes are connected to lipid metabolism at multiple levels. Here, we describe different aspects of how membrane lipids can shape the response of TLRs. Recent reports have uncovered the role of individual lipid species on membrane protein function and mouse models have contributed to the understanding of how changes in lipid metabolism alter TLR signaling, endocytosis, and cytokine secretion. Finally, we discuss the importance of systematic approaches to identify the function of individual lipid species or the composition of membrane lipids in TLR-related processes.
Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.