Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
. 2016 Jul;48(7):1251-8.
doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000908.

Environmental Endocrine Disruptor Affects Voluntary Physical Activity in Mice

Affiliations
Free PMC article

Environmental Endocrine Disruptor Affects Voluntary Physical Activity in Mice

Emily E Schmitt et al. Med Sci Sports Exerc. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Introduction: Voluntary physical activity levels are regulated by sex hormones. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the endocrine disruptor benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) on the regulation of physical activity in mice.

Methods: Mouse dams were treated with 500 mg·kg·d of BBP or vehicle on gestation days 9-16. Pups were weaned and analyzed for voluntary physical activity levels, puberty development, sex hormone levels, and body composition during the 20-wk period.

Results: Seventy-three offspring from BBP-treated dams were studied (n = 43 males and n = 30 females). Endocrine disruption was indicated by decreased anogenital distances in BBP-treated male offspring at 10 (P = 0.001) and 20 wk (P = 0.038) and delayed vaginal openings in BBP-treated female offspring (P = 0.001). Further, there was a significant decrease in serum testosterone concentration in male mice between control and BBP at 10 wk (P = 0.039) and at 20 wk (P = 0.022). In female mice, there was a significant increase in serum testosterone concentration in BBP mice at 20 wk (P = 0.002) and a significant increase in estrogen (estradiol) concentrations at 20 wk in the control female mice (P = 0.015). Overall, BBP mice ran significantly less distance (males, P = 0.008; females, P = 0.042) than controls. Other than a significant increase in BBP-treated males in fat mass at 20 wk (P = 0.040), there was no significant decrease in weight, lean mass, or fat mass in either female or male mice, regardless of treatment.

Conclusion: Maternal endocrine disruption altered hormone response, but not body composition in either sex of offspring, with a corresponding decreased activity throughout early adulthood in all offspring. These results suggest that exposure to common environmental endocrine disruptors in utero can reduce and alter physical activity levels in offspring.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors of the current study do not report any conflicts of interest.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Serum testosterone levels in male control and BBP mice. *Significantly (p<0.05) different between control and BBP-treated animals. Significant difference in serum testosterone concentration values in male mice between control and BBP at 10 weeks (p=0.039) and at 20 weeks (p=0.022). No significance in serum testosterone concentration values in male mice between control and BBP at 4 weeks (p=0.403).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Sex hormone levels in female mice. *Significantly (p<0.05) different between control and BBP-treated animals. Panel A: Estradiol concentration values were not significantly different between control and BBP at 4 weeks (p=0.997) or 10 weeks (p=0.999), yet there was significance at 20 weeks (p=0.015). Panel B: Testosterone levels were significantly different between between female BBP 20 weeks and control 20 weeks (p=0.002). No significant difference in serum testosterone concentration values in female mice between control and BBP at 4 weeks (p=0.427) or 10 weeks (p=0.137).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
Indices of pubetal development in male and female mice. *Significantly (p<0.05) between control and BBP-treated animals. Panel A: Anogenital difference were significantly different between BBP male offspring and control offspring. Anogenital distances were significantly smaller in BBP mice compared to control mice at 10 weeks (p=0.001) and 20 weeks (p=0.038). Panel B: Vaginal openings were significantly delayed between BBP and control females (p=0.001).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4
Physical activity indices of male mice. The BBP offspring showed a significant overall decrease in distance (p=0.008) and duration of exercise (p=0.005), but not speed (p=0.495) as compared to control mice.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5
Physical activity indices of female mice. The BBP offspring showed a significant overall decrease in distance (p=0.042) and duration of exercise (p=0.015), but not speed (p=0.742) as compared to control mice.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 3 articles

Publication types

Feedback