An Experimental Study of Histopathologic Effects of Hemostatic Agents Used in Spinal Surgery

World Neurosurg. 2016 Jun;90:147-153. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2016.02.052. Epub 2016 Feb 18.


Objective: To evaluate and compare the histopathologic effects of various hemostatic agents used in spinal surgery on an experimental laminectomy model in rats.

Methods: There were 110 rats randomly allocated into 11 groups, including sham, control, AnkaferdBlood Stopper (herbal hemostatic), SeraSeal (agar and bovine factor proteins), FLOSEAL (gelatin granules and thrombin), SURGIFLO (gelatin paste), HELITENE (absorbable collagen), Beriplast (fibrin sealant containing fibrinogen, factor XIII, and thrombin), TISSEEL (fibrin sealant), BLOODCARE (hemostatic powder), and SURGICEL (oxidized cellulose polymer) groups. Hemostatic agents were applied on the epidural region after laminectomy was performed until the identification of dura mater and nerve root. After a follow-up period of 12 weeks, rats were sacrificed, and histologic sections were performed proximal and distal to laminectomy zone. Groups were histopathologically compared in terms of chronic inflammation, fibrosis, and vascularization.

Results: There was no difference between groups in terms of acute inflammation (P = 0.159). Chronic inflammation was more remarkable in the herbal hemostatic group (P = 0.036), and there was severe fibrosis in absorbable collagen hemostatic, fibrin sealant, and powder hemostatic agent groups (P < 0.001). Vascularity was more obvious in herbal hemostatic; fibrin sealant; absorbable collagen; fibrin sealant containing fibrinogen, factor XIII, and thrombin; hemostatic powder; and oxidized cellulose polymer groups (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Hemostatic agents can cause notable histopathologic alterations, including inflammation, fibrosis, and vascularity. In this context, flowable hemostats such as gelatin granules and thrombin or gelatin paste seem to provide more promising results in spinal surgery.

Keywords: Epidural; Fibrosis; Hemostatic; Histopathology; Inflammation; Lumbar; Vascularization.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood Loss, Surgical / prevention & control*
  • Combined Modality Therapy / methods
  • Hemostatics / administration & dosage*
  • Laminectomy / methods*
  • Male
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Spine / drug effects
  • Spine / pathology*
  • Spine / surgery*
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Hemostatics