Environmental Exposure to Triclosan and Semen Quality

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016 Feb 17;13(2):224. doi: 10.3390/ijerph13020224.


Triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxy-diphenyl ether, TCS) is widely used in personal care, household, veterinary and industrial products. It was considered as a potential male reproductive toxicant in previous in vitro and in vivo studies. However, evidence from human studies is scarce. Our study aims to investigate the relationship between TCS exposure and semen quality. We measured urinary TCS concentrations in 471 men recruited from a male reproductive health clinic. TCS was detected in 96.7% of urine samples, with a median concentration of 0.97 ng (mg·creatinine)(-1) (interquartile range, 0.41-2.95 ng (mg·creatinine)(-1)). A multiple linear regression analysis showed a negative association between natural logarithm (Ln) transformed TCS concentration (Ln-TCS) and Ln transformed number of forward moving sperms (adjusted coefficient β = -0.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) (-0.32, -0.02). Furthermore, among those with the lowest tertile of TCS level, Ln-TCS was negatively associated with the number of forward moving sperms (β = -0.35; 95% CI (-0.68, -0.03)), percentage of sperms with normal morphology (β = -1.64; 95% CI (-3.05, -0.23)), as well as number of normal morphological sperms, sperm concentration and count. Our findings suggest that the adverse effect of TCS on semen quality is modest at the environment-relevant dose in humans. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

Keywords: cross-sectional study; endocrine disruptor; semen quality; triclosan.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anti-Infective Agents, Local / adverse effects
  • Anti-Infective Agents, Local / metabolism*
  • China / epidemiology
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Endocrine Disruptors / adverse effects*
  • Endocrine Disruptors / metabolism
  • Environmental Exposure / adverse effects*
  • Environmental Exposure / analysis
  • Environmental Monitoring / methods
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Reproductive Health
  • Semen Analysis*
  • Sperm Count
  • Spermatozoa / drug effects*
  • Triclosan / adverse effects
  • Triclosan / metabolism*


  • Anti-Infective Agents, Local
  • Endocrine Disruptors
  • Triclosan