Steady-state vitamin K2 (menaquinone-7) plasma concentrations after intake of dairy products and soft gel capsules

Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016 Jul;70(7):831-6. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2016.3. Epub 2016 Feb 24.


Background: In a previous human intervention study, we observed an improved vitamin K status after 8 weeks of intake of a yogurt that was fortified with vitamin K2 (as menaquinone-7, MK-7) and enriched with vitamins C and D3, magnesium and polyunsaturated fatty acids. It was hypothesized that the added nutrients contributed to this improvement. Here we report on a study in which we compared the fasting plasma concentrations of MK-7 from (a) yogurt enriched with MK-7, vitamins D3 and C, magnesium, n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) and fish oil (yogurt Kplus), (b) yogurt fortified with MK-7 only (yogurt K) and (c) soft gel capsules containing only MK-7.

Subjects/methods: For 42 days, healthy men and postmenopausal women between 45 and 65 years of age daily consumed either yogurt K, yogurt Kplus or capsules. Circulating MK-7, 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and markers for vitamin K status (uncarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) and desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein (dp-ucMGP)) were assessed. Plasma MK-7 was also measured during the washout period of 2 weeks. MK-7 and dp-ucMGP were measured in citrated plasma, and 25(OH)D3 and ucOC were measured in the serum.

Results: The increase in plasma MK-7 with the yogurt Kplus product was more pronounced than the increase in MK-7 with the capsules. Circulating dp-ucMGP and ucOC were significantly lowered after consumption of the yogurt products and the MK-7 capsules, reflecting vitamin K status improvement. No significant differences in fasting plasma concentrations of various biomarkers between the yogurts were found.

Conclusions: Dairy matrix and nutrient composition may affect MK-7 delivery and improvement of vitamin K status. Yogurt fortified with MK-7 is a suitable matrix to improve the nutritional status of the fat-soluble vitamins.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Ascorbic Acid / pharmacology
  • Biological Availability
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins / blood
  • Capsules
  • Cholecalciferol / pharmacology
  • Dairy Products
  • Diet*
  • Dietary Fats / pharmacology*
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Extracellular Matrix Proteins / blood
  • Fasting
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3 / pharmacology
  • Female
  • Food, Fortified*
  • Humans
  • Magnesium / pharmacology
  • Male
  • Matrix Gla Protein
  • Micronutrients / pharmacology*
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutritional Status
  • Osteocalcin / blood
  • Postmenopause
  • Reference Values
  • Vitamin K 2 / analogs & derivatives*
  • Vitamin K 2 / blood
  • Vitamin K 2 / pharmacokinetics
  • Yogurt*


  • Calcium-Binding Proteins
  • Capsules
  • Dietary Fats
  • Extracellular Matrix Proteins
  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3
  • Micronutrients
  • Osteocalcin
  • Vitamin K 2
  • Cholecalciferol
  • menaquinone 7
  • Magnesium
  • Ascorbic Acid