Hyphal tip cytoplasmic organization in four zygomycetous fungi

Mycologia. 2016 May-Jun;108(3):533-42. doi: 10.3852/15-226. Epub 2016 Feb 23.


We have examined the hyphal tip structure in four zygomycetous fungi: Mortierella verticillata (Mortierellales), Coemansia reversa (Kickxellales), Mucor indicus and Gilbertella persicaria (Mucorales) using both light and transmission electron microscopy. We have used cryofixation and freeze-substitution methods to preserve fungal hyphae for transmission electron microscopy, which yielded improved preservation of ultrastructural details. Our research has confirmed studies that described the accumulation of secretory vesicles as a crescent at the hyphal apex (i.e. the apical vesicle crescent [AVC]) and provided a more detailed understanding of the vesicle populations. In addition, we have been able to observe the behavior of the AVC during hyphal growth in M. indicus and G. persicaria.

Keywords: apical vesicle crescent; cryofixation; electron microscopy; hyphal growth; light microscopy; phylogeny; vesicle organization.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Cytoplasm / ultrastructure*
  • Fungi / growth & development*
  • Fungi / ultrastructure
  • Hyphae / growth & development
  • Hyphae / ultrastructure*
  • Microscopy, Electron, Transmission