The Competitive Interplay between Allosteric HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitor BI/D and LEDGF/p75 during the Early Stage of HIV-1 Replication Adversely Affects Inhibitor Potency

ACS Chem Biol. 2016 May 20;11(5):1313-21. doi: 10.1021/acschembio.6b00167. Epub 2016 Mar 2.


Allosteric HIV-1 integrase inhibitors (ALLINIs) have recently emerged as a promising class of antiretroviral agents and are currently in clinical trials. In infected cells, ALLINIs potently inhibit viral replication by impairing virus particle maturation but surprisingly exhibit a reduced EC50 for inhibiting HIV-1 integration in target cells. To better understand the reduced antiviral activity of ALLINIs during the early stage of HIV-1 replication, we investigated the competitive interplay between a potent representative ALLINI, BI/D, and LEDGF/p75 with HIV-1 integrase. While the principal binding sites of BI/D and LEDGF/p75 overlap at the integrase catalytic core domain dimer interface, we show that the inhibitor and the cellular cofactor induce markedly different multimerization patterns of full-length integrase. LEDGF/p75 stabilizes an integrase tetramer through the additional interactions with the integrase N-terminal domain, whereas BI/D induces protein-protein interactions in C-terminal segments that lead to aberrant, higher-order integrase multimerization. We demonstrate that LEDGF/p75 binds HIV-1 integrase with significantly higher affinity than BI/D and that the cellular protein is able to reverse the inhibitor induced aberrant, higher-order integrase multimerization in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Consistent with these observations, alterations of the cellular levels of LEDGF/p75 markedly affected BI/D EC50 values during the early steps of HIV-1 replication. Furthermore, genome-wide sequencing of HIV-1 integration sites in infected cells demonstrate that LEDGF/p75-dependent integration site selection is adversely affected by BI/D treatment. Taken together, our studies elucidate structural and mechanistic details of the interplay between LEDGF/p75 and BI/D during the early stage of HIV-1 replication.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Allosteric Regulation / drug effects
  • HEK293 Cells
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy*
  • HIV Infections / metabolism*
  • HIV Infections / virology
  • HIV Integrase / metabolism*
  • HIV Integrase Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • HIV-1 / drug effects*
  • HIV-1 / physiology
  • Humans
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism*
  • Virus Replication / drug effects*


  • HIV Integrase Inhibitors
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • lens epithelium-derived growth factor
  • HIV Integrase
  • p31 integrase protein, Human immunodeficiency virus 1