Background: Autologous adipose tissue transfer may be performed for aesthetic needs following resection of osteosarcoma, the most frequent primary malignant tumor of bone, excluding myeloma. The safety of autologous adipose tissue transfer regarding the potential risk of cancer recurrence must be addressed.
Methods: Adipose tissue injection was tested in a human osteosarcoma preclinical model induced by MNNG-HOS cells. Culture media without growth factors from fetal bovine serum were conditioned with adipose tissue samples and added to two osteosarcoma cell lines (MNNG-HOS and MG-63) that were cultured in monolayer or maintained in nonadherent spheres, favoring a proliferation or quiescent stage, respectively. Proliferation and cell cycle were analyzed.
Results: Adipose tissue injection increased local growth of osteosarcoma in mice but was not associated with aggravation of lung metastasis or osteolysis. Adipose tissue-derived soluble factors increased the in vitro proliferation of osteosarcoma cells up to 180 percent. Interleukin-6 and leptin were measured in higher concentrations in adipose tissue-conditioned medium than in osteosarcoma cell-conditioned medium, but the authors' results indicated that they were not implicated alone. Furthermore, adipose tissue-derived soluble factors did not favor a G0-to-G1 phase transition of MNNG-HOS cells in nonadherent oncospheres.
Conclusions: This study indicates that adipose tissue-soluble factors activate osteosarcoma cell cycle from G1 to mitosis phases, but do not promote the transition from quiescent G0 to G1 phases. Autologous adipose tissue transfer may not be involved in the activation of dormant tumor cells or cancer stem cells.