The initial responses to cold-water immersion in man

Clin Sci (Lond). 1989 Dec;77(6):581-8. doi: 10.1042/cs0770581.


This review is summarized in Fig. 1. It is concluded that the cold-shock response can result in the death or serious incapacitation of an individual long before general hypothermia develops. As such, this response is probably responsible for the majority of annual open-water immersion deaths.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cardiovascular System / physiopathology
  • Cold Temperature*
  • Humans
  • Immersion / adverse effects
  • Immersion / physiopathology*
  • Respiration
  • Shock / physiopathology
  • Water


  • Water