Organoids as an in vitro model of human development and disease

Nat Cell Biol. 2016 Mar;18(3):246-54. doi: 10.1038/ncb3312.


The in vitro organoid model is a major technological breakthrough that has already been established as an essential tool in many basic biology and clinical applications. This near-physiological 3D model facilitates an accurate study of a range of in vivo biological processes including tissue renewal, stem cell/niche functions and tissue responses to drugs, mutation or damage. In this Review, we discuss the current achievements, challenges and potential applications of this technique.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Culture Techniques*
  • Cell Differentiation / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Models, Biological*
  • Organoids / cytology*
  • Stem Cell Niche / physiology*
  • Stem Cells / cytology*