Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) is a 37-amino-acid putative hormone which is expressed by islet B-cells and most probably is co-released with insulin. IAPP is synthesized as an 89-amino-acid prepropeptide in which IAPP is flanked by two short peptides. The two short peptides are ultimately cleaved off at basic residues. In the present study, we used antisera to three different synthetic peptides corresponding to positions 18-30, 40-50 and 53-62 of prepro-IAPP. The two latter peptides fall within the mature IAPP molecule while the first peptide corresponds to the N-terminal flanking peptide. We demonstrate that normal B-cells and islet amyloid both react immunohistochemically with all of these antisera. Using the immunogold labelling technique, we also demonstrate electron microscopically that both the IAPP immunoreactivity and the pro1-IAPP immunoreactivity in amyloid deposits are confined to the amyloid fibrils per se. These data indicate that not only mature IAPP but also the N-terminal flanking peptide is present in islet amyloid deposits. It remains to be shown if the propeptide segments are involved in the pathogenesis of these amyloid depositions.