LC-MS-MS Analysis of Brodifacoum Isomers in Rat Tissue

J Anal Toxicol. 2016 May;40(4):304-9. doi: 10.1093/jat/bkw008. Epub 2016 Feb 23.


Brodifacoum (BDF) is a second-generation anticoagulant rodenticide structurally related to warfarin but containing two chiral centers. Highly stable, BDF can contaminate food and water supplies causing accidental poisoning of humans and nontarget animals. To determine the distribution of BDF isomers in serum and tissues, a quantitative method was developed and validated according to FDA guidelines based on high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A single liquid-liquid extraction step provided recoveries exceeding 93%. Reversed-phase chromatographic separations required <6 min, and quantitative analysis utilized a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with negative ion electrospray and selected reaction monitoring. The standard curve had a linear regression coefficient of 0.999 and intra- and inter-assay variations of <10%. The chromatographic method enabled the resolution and measurement of pairs of BDF diastereomers in commercial materials as well as in rat tissues. This method is suitable for measuring BDF exposure as well as basic science studies of the distribution and elimination of BDF diastereomers to various tissues.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • 4-Hydroxycoumarins / analysis*
  • 4-Hydroxycoumarins / chemistry
  • Animals
  • Anticoagulants / analysis*
  • Anticoagulants / chemistry
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Male
  • Quality Control
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Reference Standards
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Rodenticides / analysis*
  • Rodenticides / chemistry
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
  • Stereoisomerism
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry


  • 4-Hydroxycoumarins
  • Anticoagulants
  • Rodenticides
  • bromfenacoum