The baobab fruit (Adansonia digitata) was analyzed for proximate composition, amino acids, and minerals. The fruit pulp was found to be a good source of carbohydrates, proteins, phenols, and substantial quantities of K, Ca, and Mg. Amino acid analyses revealed high glutamic and aspartic acid, but the sulfur amino acids were the most limited. The present study was designed to investigate the role of Adansonia digitata (Baobab fruit pulp) against isoproterenol induced myocardial oxidative stress in experimental rats by demonstrating the changes in tissue cardiac markers, some antioxidant enzymes, interleukin-1 β (IL-1 β), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1(MCP-1), myeloperoxidase (MPO), Collagen-1, galectin-3, and serum corticosterone. The activities of enzymatic antioxidant glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and non-enzymatic antioxidant reduced glutathione (GSH) in the heart tissue; additionally, histopathological examination of the heart was estimated. Male albino rats were randomly divided into four groups of ten animals each. Group I served as normal control animal. Group II animals received isoproterenol (ISP) (85 mg/kg body weight intraperitonealy (i.p.) to develop myocardial injury. Group III were myocardial oxidative animals treated with Baobab fruit pulp (200 µg/rats/day) for 4 weeks. Group IV received Baobab fruit pulp only. The data suggested an isoproterenol increase in levels of cardiac marker enzymes [creatine kinase MB (CK- MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)], IL-1ß, MCP-1, MPO, Collagen, and galectin-3, with concomitant decrease in the activities GPX and GSH in heart tissue as well as corticosterone in serum. Baobab fruit pulp brings all the parameters to near normal level in ISP-induced myocardial infarction in rats. Histopathological examination of heart tissue of ISP-administered model rat showed infiltration of inflammatory cells and congestion in the blood vessels. However, treatment with Baobab fruit pulp (200 µg/rats/day) showed predominantly normal myocardial structure and no inflammatory cell infiltration. It has been concluded that Baobab fruit pulp has cardio protective effect against ISP-induced oxidative stress in rats.
Keywords: Baobab fruit pulp; chemical composition; isoproterenol; oxidative stress.