Pears and renal stones: possible weapon for prevention? A comprehensive narrative review

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2016;20(3):414-25.


Urinary stones have been recognized as a human disease since dawn of history and treatment of this condition is reported by Egyptian medical writings. Also, pears have a very long history, being one of the earliest cultivated fruit trees and also known for medicinal use. Urinary tract stone formation represents a common condition and also a significant burden for health care service, due also to possible frequent relapses. Furthermore, urinary stones have been reported to have relationship with different metabolic derangements, and appropriate diet could contribute to avoid or reduce urinary stone formation. Citrate is an inhibitor of crystal growth in the urinary system, and hypocitraturia represents a main therapeutical target in stone formers. Pears contain a significant amount of malic acid, a precursor of citrate, and have antioxidant activity as well. A diet supplemented with pears, and associated with low consumption of meat and salt could impact positively cardiometabolic risk and urinary tract stone formation. However, very few studies evaluated the impact of pears utilization on health, and none on urinary tract stone formation in particular. High content in malate could warrant protection against stone formation, avoiding patients at high risk to be compelled to assume a considerable and expensive amount of pills.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Citrates / metabolism*
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Egypt
  • Fruit*
  • Humans
  • Kidney Calculi / diet therapy
  • Kidney Calculi / prevention & control
  • Phytotherapy*
  • Pyrus*
  • Recurrence
  • Urinary Calculi / diet therapy
  • Urinary Calculi / prevention & control*
  • Weapons


  • Citrates