A study of facial wrinkles improvement effect of veratric acid from cauliflower mushroom through photo-protective mechanisms against UVB irradiation

Arch Dermatol Res. 2016 Apr;308(3):183-92. doi: 10.1007/s00403-016-1633-z. Epub 2016 Feb 25.


Solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is a primary cause of premature skin aging that is closely associated with the degradation of collagens caused by up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) or a decrease in collagen synthesis. The phenolic veratric acid (VA, 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid) is one of the major benzoic acid derivatives from fruits, vegetables and medicinal mushrooms. VA has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and photo-protective effects. In this study, anti-photoaging effects were investigated through the photo-protective mechanisms of VA against UV irradiation in human dermal fibroblasts and the reconstructed human epidermal model. We used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, hematoxylin and eosin staining (H&E) and immunohistochemistry assays. Finally, we further investigated the clinical effects of VA on facial wrinkle improvements in humans. Our results demonstrate that VA attenuated the expression of MMPs, increased cell proliferation, type Ι procollagen, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases, and filaggrin against UV radiation; however, has no effect on improvement expressions of elastic fiber. In addition, treatment with cream containing VA improved facial wrinkles in a clinical trial. These findings indicate that VA improves wrinkle formation by modulating MMPs, collagens and epidermal layer integrity, suggesting its potential use in UV-induced premature skin aging.

Keywords: Collagen; Facial wrinkle; MMP; Photoaging; Reconstructed human epidermis; Veratric acid.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Collagen / metabolism
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Elastic Tissue / drug effects
  • Elastic Tissue / metabolism
  • Epidermis / drug effects
  • Epidermis / metabolism
  • Epidermis / radiation effects
  • Face
  • Female
  • Fibroblasts / drug effects
  • Filaggrin Proteins
  • Humans
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods
  • Intermediate Filament Proteins / metabolism
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors / metabolism
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases / metabolism
  • Polyporales / chemistry*
  • Procollagen / metabolism
  • Radiation-Protective Agents / administration & dosage
  • Radiation-Protective Agents / pharmacology*
  • Skin Aging / drug effects*
  • Skin Aging / radiation effects
  • Skin Cream / administration & dosage
  • Skin Cream / pharmacology*
  • Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects
  • Up-Regulation
  • Vanillic Acid / administration & dosage
  • Vanillic Acid / analogs & derivatives*
  • Vanillic Acid / pharmacology


  • FLG protein, human
  • Filaggrin Proteins
  • Intermediate Filament Proteins
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors
  • Procollagen
  • Radiation-Protective Agents
  • veratric acid
  • Collagen
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases
  • Vanillic Acid