Exercise training has been firmly established as an additional therapeutic strategy in addition to pharmacological and interventional treatment in patients with cardiovascular disease. Benefits for quality of life as well as prognosis have been confirmed for cardiovascular risk factors, ischemic heart disease, after myocardial infarction, in heart failure with preserved as well as reduced ejection fraction, in atrial fibrillation and in patients after catheter-assisted aortic valve implantation (TAVI), with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) or with left ventricular assist devices (VAD). Training programs have to be tailored according to the disease, stage of disease, comorbidities, age of the patient, medication as well as exercise capacity. For prescribing exercise mode and intensity, a maximum exercise test has to be performed. Ideally, this is accompanied by spirometry to assess maximum values such as maximum oxygen consumption. Training intensity will then be prescribed according to the optimal training range and maximum training intensity.
Keywords: Cardiac rehabilitation; Cardiovascular diseases; Ergometry; Exercise training; Spirometry.