Background: Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and its specific tissue inhibitor - tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) may play an important role in the pathogenesis and spread of cancer. We investigated the plasma levels of M-CSF, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 in comparison with a commonly accepted tumor marker CA 15-3 in breast cancer patients and in control groups.
Methods: The cohort included 110 breast cancer patients in groups at stages I-IV. The control group consisted of 50 healthy volunteers and 50 benign tumor patients. Plasma levels of M-CSF, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 were determined by using ELISA, while CA 15-3 concentrations were determined by using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA).
Results: The results showed significant differences in concentrations of the analyzed parameters and in levels of CA 15-3 between the groups of breast cancer patients and the two control groups. Diagnosis using these markers was equal to that using CA 15-3 in terms of sensitivity, predictive values of positive and negativetest results (PPV, NPV) and area under the ROC curve (AUC) in the studied groups. The diagnostic specificities of MMP-9, TIMP-1, M-CSF, and CA 15-3 showed equally high values (95%). The combined use of all tested parameters with CA 15-3 resulted in increased sensitivity, NPV, and AUC, especially in the combination of M-CSF with tumor markers (76%, 64%, and 0.8653).
Conclusions: These findings suggest the tested parameters are useful in the diagnosis of breast cancer patients (except stage I), when combined with CA 15-3.
Keywords: Breast cancer; CA 15-3; M-CSF; MMP-9; TIMP-1.