Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune exocrinopathy. The salivary glands are the site of activated T- and B-lymphocytes, along with gradual parenchymal destruction, diminished flow and altered composition of the secretory product. At present, sialochemistry has achieved no significance for the evaluation of SS patient. However, the number of sialochemical publications is steadily growing. This study review current sialochemical findings in patients with SS and relate the observations to the present concept of diagnosis, pathogenesis and prognosis of SS. An ideal combination of the collection of low-stimulated pure secretion, measurements of absolute flow-rates, and biopsy from the same glands seem to be unobtainable in SS patients. But two procedures may be appropriate: stimulated parotid secretion combined with parotid biopsies, or absorbance of low-stimulated labila saliva combined with labial gland biopsy. Sufficient data on disease-specific alterations in salivary composition in SS are still lacking. However, detection of specific changes in protein synthesis or in glycosylation as well as the detection of inflammatory cell products should be possible with the use of sensitive biochemical assays.