Discovery of Plant Extracts That Greatly Delay Yeast Chronological Aging and Have Different Effects on Longevity-Defining Cellular Processes

Oncotarget. 2016 Mar 29;7(13):16542-66. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.7665.

Abstract

We discovered six plant extracts that increase yeast chronological lifespan to a significantly greater extent than any of the presently known longevity-extending chemical compounds. One of these extracts is the most potent longevity-extending pharmacological intervention yet described. We show that each of the six plant extracts is a geroprotector which delays the onset and decreases the rate of yeast chronological aging by eliciting a hormetic stress response. We also show that each of these extracts has different effects on cellular processes that define longevity in organisms across phyla. These effects include the following: 1) increased mitochondrial respiration and membrane potential; 2) augmented or reduced concentrations of reactive oxygen species; 3) decreased oxidative damage to cellular proteins, membrane lipids, and mitochondrial and nuclear genomes; 4) enhanced cell resistance to oxidative and thermal stresses; and 5) accelerated degradation of neutral lipids deposited in lipid droplets. Our findings provide new insights into mechanisms through which chemicals extracted from certain plants can slow biological aging.

Keywords: aging-delaying chemical compounds; cellular aging; longevity; plant extracts; yeast.

MeSH terms

  • Lipid Droplets / drug effects
  • Lipid Droplets / metabolism
  • Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial / drug effects
  • Mitochondria / drug effects*
  • Mitochondria / metabolism
  • Mitochondria / physiology
  • Oxidation-Reduction / drug effects
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Plants / chemistry
  • Plants / classification
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / drug effects*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / metabolism
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / physiology
  • Species Specificity
  • Time Factors

Substances

  • Plant Extracts
  • Reactive Oxygen Species