A prebiotic effect of Ecklonia cava on the growth and mortality of olive flounder infected with pathogenic bacteria

Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2016 Apr:51:313-320. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2016.02.030. Epub 2016 Feb 26.


Olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), also known as the Japanese flounder in Japan, is one of the most important commercial marine finfish species cultured in Korea and Japan. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how a species of brown algae (Ecklonia cava, E. cava) affects the growth rate of olive flounder and its immune response to pathogenic bacteria. First, the experimental fish were divided into four groups: the control group was fed the diet containing only 1.0% Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum), group I was fed 1.0% L. plantarum and 1.0% E. cava (EC), group II was fed 1.0% L. plantarum and 0.1% ethanol extract of EC (EE), and group III was fed 1.0% L. plantarum and 0.5% EE. The diets fed to the fish twice a day for 16 weeks. The results indicated that supplementation with 1.0% EC and 0.1% EE improved the growth and body weight of olive flounder, and decreased its mortality. This diet, however, did not significantly affect the biochemical profiles of the experimental flounder. The supplementation of 1.0% EC also enhanced the innate immune response of the fish, as evidenced by the high respiratory burst, and increased serum lysozyme and myeloperoxidase activity. The addition of 1.0% EC and either 0.1% or 0.5% EE also decreased the accumulative mortality of olive flounder infected by pathogenic bacteria (Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, and Vibrio harveyi). Overall, these results suggest that E. cava can act as a prebiotic by improving the innate immune response in fish infected with pathogenic bacteria as increased the growth of the probiotic.

Keywords: Ecklonia cava; Innate immune response; Lactobacillus plantarum; Olive flounder; Prebiotic.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Body Weight
  • Edwardsiella tarda
  • Enterobacteriaceae Infections / pathology
  • Enterobacteriaceae Infections / prevention & control
  • Enterobacteriaceae Infections / veterinary
  • Fish Diseases / pathology
  • Fish Diseases / prevention & control
  • Flounder / physiology*
  • Lactobacillus plantarum*
  • Muramidase / metabolism
  • Peroxidase / metabolism
  • Phaeophyceae*
  • Prebiotics*
  • Respiratory Burst
  • Streptococcal Infections / pathology
  • Streptococcal Infections / prevention & control
  • Streptococcal Infections / veterinary
  • Streptococcus iniae
  • Vibrio
  • Vibrio Infections / pathology
  • Vibrio Infections / prevention & control
  • Vibrio Infections / veterinary


  • Prebiotics
  • Peroxidase
  • Muramidase