In major ABO-mismatched allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) persistence of antidonor isohemagglutinins leads to pure red cell aplasia (PRCA). To investigate severe pancytopenia noted in a previous study of PRCA, we analyzed all major ABO-mismatched HSCT between January 2003 and December 2012. Of 83 PRCA patients, 13 (16%) had severe pancytopenia. Severe pancytopenia was defined as an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) < 1.5 K/μL or requiring granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, platelets < 50 K/μL or transfusion dependent, and PRCA with RBC transfusion dependence at post-transplant day 90. In 6 patients (46%) severe pancytopenia resolved after PRCA resolution. Two patients (15%) received a second transplant because of persistent pancytopenia/secondary graft failure, 1 (8%) died from secondary graft failure despite a stem cell boost, 1 (8%) did not recover his platelet counts despite RBC/ANC recovery, and 3 patients (23%) died from disease relapse. We found that severe pancytopenia is frequently associated with PRCA in 16% of major ABO-incompatible HSCT with a higher incidence in males and pancytopenia resolved with resolution of PRCA in 46% of patients.
Keywords: Hematopoietic stem cell transplant; Pancytopenia; Pure red cell aplasia.
Copyright © 2016 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.