Urological complications of uterine leiomyoma: a review of literature

Int Urol Nephrol. 2016 Jun;48(6):941-8. doi: 10.1007/s11255-016-1248-5. Epub 2016 Feb 27.


Introduction: Uterine leiomyomas are common gynecologic tumor in reproductive-aged women, by age 50, diagnosis shared by urologist, gynecologists and radiologists.

Objective: The goal of this article is to review the current literature, study the impact of leiomyoma on female lower urinary tract, examine the cause female sexual dysfunction and provide a comprehensive review of current diagnostic, imaging studies, and current treatment of leiomyoma.

Methods: Clinical leiomyoma studies published from 1956 through 2015 were identified using the PubMed search engines and the key words leiomyoma, fibroid in the current literature. Impact of leiomyoma on the lower urinary tract including female sexual dysfunction was reviewed with terms of "urinary retention", "bladder", "urethra", "dyspareunia", "incontinence", "incomplete bladder emptying", "female sexual dysfunction", and "lower urinary tract" to study the urological and sexual effects of leiomyoma. Literature related to leiomyoma was reviewed from 1965 to present.

Results: Women with uterine leiomyomata complained of pelvic pain, menstrual irregularities, infertility, lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual dysfunction.

Conclusion: Leiomyoma is a common tumor of the uterus that often clinically impacts on the lower urinary tract and results in urological and sexual symptoms. Leiomyoma can compress and grow into and become adherent to the bladder and surrounding pelvic organs or metastasize into peritoneal organs. Leiomyoma can enlarge and compress the urinary bladder, urethra, and lower end of the ureters. Leiomyoma can cause embarrassing sexual dysfunction in females. Current literature of non-surgical and surgical therapy of leiomyoma is described.

Keywords: Acute urinary retention; Hematuria; Hydronephrosis; Hysterectomy; Lower urinary tract symptoms; Uterine leiomyoma.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Humans
  • Leiomyoma / complications*
  • Leiomyoma / diagnosis
  • Leiomyoma / therapy
  • Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms / etiology*
  • Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological / etiology*
  • Urologic Diseases / etiology*
  • Uterine Neoplasms / complications*
  • Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Uterine Neoplasms / therapy