Background and objectives: Laser procedures in skin of color (SOC) patients are challenging due to the increased risk of dyspigmentation and scarring. A novel 755 nm alexandrite picosecond laser has demonstrated effectiveness for tattoo removal and treatment of acne scars. No studies to date have evaluated its applications in pigmentary disorders. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the safety profile and efficacy of the picosecond alexandrite laser compared to the current standard treatment, Q-switched ruby and neodynium (Nd):YAG nanosecond lasers, for pigmentary disorders in SOC patients.
Study design/materials and methods: A retrospective photographic and chart evaluation of seventy 755 nm alexandrite picosecond, ninety-two Q-switched frequency doubled 532 nm and 1,064 nm Nd:YAG nanosecond, and forty-seven Q-switched 694 nm ruby nanosecond laser treatments, in forty-two subjects of Fitzpatrick skin types III-VI was conducted in a single laser specialty center. The picosecond laser was a research prototype device. Treatment efficacy was assessed by two blinded physician evaluators, using a visual analog scale for percentage of pigmentary clearance in standard photographs. Subject assessment of efficacy, satisfaction, and adverse events was performed using a questionnaire survey.
Results: The most common pigmentary disorder treated was Nevus of Ota (38.1%), followed by solar lentigines (23.8%). Other pigmentary disorders included post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, congenital nevus, café au lait macule, dermal melanocytosis, Nevus of Ito, and Becker's nevus. Clinical efficacy of the Q-switched nanosecond lasers and picosecond laser treatments were comparable for lesions treated on the face with a mean visual analog score of 2.57 and 2.44, respectively, corresponding to approximately 50% pigmentary clearance. Subject questionnaires were completed in 58.8% of the picosecond subjects and 52.0% of the Q-switched subjects. Eighty four percent of subjects receiving Q-switched nanosecond laser treatments and 50% of the subjects receiving alexandrite 755 nm picosecond laser treatments felt satisfied to completely satisfied. Side effects observed in subjects treated with the alexandrite 755 nm picosecond laser were similar to those commonly observed and reported with the nanosecond Q-switched technology. All side effects were temporary, resolving within one month, and no long-term complications were noted. All patients who were very satisfied with their picosecond laser treatment for Nevus of Ota noted a delayed improvement only after 3 months.
Conclusion: The 755 nm alexandrite picosecond, 694 nm ruby, 532 nm, and 1064 nm neodynium:YAG nanosecond lasers appear to be safe and effective modalities for removal of pigmentary disorders in skin of color patients with no long-term complications if used appropriately. This study demonstrates the potential of the 755 nm alexandrite picosecond laser in further clinical applications beyond tattoo removal. While the Q-switched lasers were effective, promising results were also observed using an early version of the novel picosecond laser for the removal of pigmentary lesions in SOC patients. As we continue to improve our understanding of the 755 nm picosecond laser, this device may prove to be a safe and effective alternative to the Q-switched lasers for the treatment of facial pigmented lesions in patients with skin of color.
Keywords: nanosecond; picosecond; pigment; skin.
© 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.