Nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation in preterm infants: Equipment, evidence, and synchronization

Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2016 Jun;21(3):146-53. doi: 10.1016/j.siny.2016.01.003. Epub 2016 Feb 26.

Abstract

The use of nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) as respiratory support for preterm infants is well established. Evidence from randomized trials indicates that NIPPV is advantageous over continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) as post-extubation support, albeit with varied outcomes between NIPPV techniques. Randomized data comparing NIPPV with CPAP as primary support, and for the treatment of apnea, are conflicting. Intrepretation of outcomes is limited by the multiple techniques and devices used to generate and deliver NIPPV. This review discusses the potential mechanisms of action of NIPPV in preterm infants, the evidence from clinical trials, and summarizes recommendations for practice.

Keywords: Continuous positive airway pressure; Neonatal intensive care; Newborn; Premature infant; Respiratory distress syndrome.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Intermittent Positive-Pressure Ventilation / instrumentation
  • Intermittent Positive-Pressure Ventilation / methods*
  • Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn / therapy*