Long-Term Cigarette Smoking Trajectories Among HIV-Seropositive and Seronegative MSM in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study

AIDS Behav. 2016 Aug;20(8):1713-21. doi: 10.1007/s10461-016-1343-8.


To examine the association between demographic characteristics and long-term smoking trajectory group membership among HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative men who have sex with men (MSM). A cohort of 6552 MSM from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study were asked detailed information about their smoking history since their last follow-up. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to examine smoking behavior and identify trajectory group membership. Because participants enrolled after 2001 were more likely to be younger, HIV-seronegative, non-Hispanic black, and have a high school diploma or less, we also assessed time of enrollment in our analysis. Participants were grouped into 4 distinct smoking trajectory groups: persistent nonsmoker (n = 3737 [55.9 %]), persistent light smoker (n = 663 [11.0 %]), heavy smoker to nonsmoker (n = 531 [10.0 %]), and persistent heavy smoker (n = 1604 [23.1 %]). Compared with persistent nonsmokers, persistent heavy smokers were associated with being enrolled in 2001 and later (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.35; 95 % CI 2.12-2.58), having a high school diploma or less (aOR 3.22; 95 % CI 3.05-3.39), and being HIV-seropositive (aOR 1.17; 95 % CI 1.01-1.34). These associations were statistically significant across all trajectory groups for time of enrollment and education but not for HIV serostatus. The overall decrease of smoking as shown by our trajectory groups is consistent with the national trend. Characteristics associated with smoking group trajectory membership should be considered in the development of targeted smoking cessation interventions among MSM and people living with HIV.

Keywords: MACS; PLWH; Smoking; Trajectories.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Cohort Studies
  • HIV Seronegativity*
  • HIV Seropositivity*
  • Health Promotion
  • Homosexuality, Male*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Odds Ratio
  • Smoking / adverse effects*