T cell checkpoint blockade therapies are revolutionizing the treatment of patients with cancer. Highlighted by the recent success of PD-1 plus CTLA-4 blockade in patients with melanomas, synergistic immunotherapy combinations of modalities represent an important opportunity to improve responses and outcomes for patients. We review the rationale and experience with T cell checkpoint blockade in combination with targeting of other coinhibitory or costimulatory checkpoints, immunomodulatory molecules in the tumor microenvironment, and other anticancer modalities such as vaccines, chemotherapy, and radiation.
Keywords: 4-1BB/CD137; CTLA-4; Chemotherapy; Combination immunotherapy; GITR; IDO; IL-2; LAG-3; OX-40; Oncolytic virus; PD-1; PD-L1; Radiation; T cell checkpoint blockade; TIM-3.
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