Background: Research on how dairy products affect appetite has shown conflicting results.
Objective: To conduct a meta-analysis of clinical trials to assess the effects of dairy products consumption on satiety and its components (appetite, hunger, prospective food consumption, fullness, desire to eat and second meal food intake).
Method: We used PubMed, ISI Web of Science and Google Scholar to search for eligible clinical trials published before February 2015. From over 3000 articles, 13 clinical trials met the inclusion criteria. Analyses were performed to evaluate the effect of dairy consumption on energy intake in a second meal and to study sources of heterogeneity. We also assessed the effects of dairy consumption and subjective indicators of satiety.
Result: Primary analyses indicated that dairy consumption decreased energy intake in a second meal but that there was significant heterogeneity (Cochrane Q test, P < 0.001, I2 = 88.2%). Heterogeneity was eliminated through subgroup analyses based on the type of preload consumed by the control group. All subgroups showed significant decreases in energy intake after consumption of preloads except for fruit drinks, cola, and chocolate bars. Consumption of more than 500 ml of dairy products influenced fullness, hunger, and PFC. Although not statistically significant, dairy consumption was associated with decreased appetite (-3.97, 95%CI: -9.37, 1.43) and desire to eat (-0.11, 95%CI: -4.21, 3.98). However, dairy product consumption significantly increased satiety (7.94, 95%CI: 0.60, 15.28).
Conclusion: Consumption of over 500 ml of dairy products can increase satiety and its components. Moreover, the nature of the preload consumed by the control group influenced the effects of increased satiety on decreases in food intake during a second meal. Consumption of dairy products also increased the risk of inducing positive energy balance.
Keywords: Appetite; Dairy; Food intake; Fullness; Hunger; Satiety.
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