Extrahepatic Manifestations of Hepatitis C: A Meta-analysis of Prevalence, Quality of Life, and Economic Burden

Gastroenterology. 2016 Jun;150(7):1599-1608. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2016.02.039. Epub 2016 Feb 26.


Background & aims: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has hepatic and extrahepatic manifestations with various costs and impairments to health-related quality of life (HRQL). We performed a meta-analysis to determine the prevalence of extrahepatic manifestations in patients with HCV infection, how these impair HRQL, and their costs.

Methods: We performed systematic reviews of the literature using MEDLINE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Systematic Review Database, from 1996 through December 2014, to identify studies of the following extrahepatic manifestations of HCV infection: mixed cryoglobulinemia, chronic kidney or end-stage renal disease, type 2 diabetes, B-cell lymphoma, lichen planus, Sjögren's syndrome, porphyria cutanea tarda, rheumatoid-like arthritis, or depression. We performed a separate meta-analysis for each condition to determine prevalence rates of extrahepatic manifestations of HCV infection and their effects on HRQL. We determined the annual costs (inpatient, outpatient, and pharmacy) associated with extrahepatic manifestations of HCV infection.

Results: In an analysis of data from 102 studies, we found the most common extrahepatic manifestations to be diabetes (in 15% of patients) and depression (in 25% of patients). HRQL data showed that HCV infection had negative effects on overall physical and mental health. Total direct medical costs of extrahepatic manifestations of HCV infection, in 2014 US dollars, were estimated to be $1506 million (range, $922 million-$2208 million in sensitivity analysis).

Conclusions: In a systematic review and meta-analysis we determined the prevalence, risks, and costs associated with extrahepatic manifestations of HCV infection. These estimates should be added to the liver-related burden of disease to obtain a more accurate assessment of the total burden of chronic HCV infection. Prospective, real-world studies are needed to increase our understanding of the total clinical and economic effects of HCV infection and treatment on patients and society.

Keywords: Liver; Morbidity; Outcome; Pancreatic.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Arthritis, Rheumatoid / epidemiology
  • Arthritis, Rheumatoid / virology
  • Cost of Illness*
  • Cryoglobulinemia / epidemiology
  • Cryoglobulinemia / virology
  • Depression / epidemiology
  • Depression / virology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / virology
  • Female
  • Hepacivirus
  • Hepatitis C, Chronic / complications*
  • Hepatitis C, Chronic / economics*
  • Hepatitis C, Chronic / virology
  • Humans
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / epidemiology
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / virology
  • Lichen Planus / epidemiology
  • Lichen Planus / virology
  • Lymphoma, B-Cell / epidemiology
  • Lymphoma, B-Cell / virology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Porphyria Cutanea Tarda / epidemiology
  • Porphyria Cutanea Tarda / virology
  • Prevalence
  • Quality of Life*
  • Sjogren's Syndrome / epidemiology
  • Sjogren's Syndrome / virology