Urban-rural differences in children's earliest memories

Memory. 2017 Feb;25(2):214-219. doi: 10.1080/09658211.2016.1150490. Epub 2016 Feb 29.


The purpose of the present study was to address the effects of urban vs. rural upbringing on earliest autobiographical memories. We asked children (aged 10-13) brought up in an urban vs. in a rural setting to report their earliest memories. Earliest memories of children from rural areas were a year later than those of children from urban areas. Moreover, memories of children from rural areas were more likely to contain social interactions and tended to be less detailed compared to those from urban areas. The groups, however, were not different in specificity, autonomous orientation, or emotion. Results are discussed in the context of a social cultural developmental approach.

Keywords: Childhood amnesia; culture and autobiographical memory; self-construal; urban vs. rural difference in memory.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Age Factors
  • Child
  • Child Development*
  • Emotions
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Interpersonal Relations
  • Male
  • Memory, Episodic*
  • Mental Recall
  • Orientation
  • Rural Population*
  • Urban Population*