Objective: This study evaluated the utility, specificity, and sensitivity of intraoperative confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) to provide diagnostic information during resection of human brain tumors.
Methods: CLE imaging was used in the resection of intracranial neoplasms in 74 consecutive patients (31 male; mean age 47.5 years; sequential 10-month study period). Intraoperative in vivo and ex vivo CLE was performed after intravenous injection of fluorescein sodium (FNa). Tissue samples from CLE imaging-matched areas were acquired for comparison with routine histological analysis (frozen and permanent sections). CLE images were classified as diagnostic or nondiagnostic. The specificities and sensitivities of CLE and frozen sections for gliomas and meningiomas were calculated using permanent histological sections as the standard.
Results: CLE images were obtained for each patient. The mean duration of intraoperative CLE system use was 15.7 minutes (range 3-73 minutes). A total of 20,734 CLE images were correlated with 267 biopsy specimens (mean number of images/biopsy location, in vivo 84, ex vivo 70). CLE images were diagnostic for 45.98% in vivo and 52.97% ex vivo specimens. After initiation of CLE, an average of 14 in vivo images and 7 ex vivo images were acquired before identification of a first diagnostic image. CLE specificity and sensitivity were, respectively, 94% and 91% for gliomas and 93% and 97% for meningiomas.
Conclusions: CLE with FNa provided intraoperative histological information during brain tumor removal. Specificities and sensitivities of CLE for gliomas and meningiomas were comparable to those for frozen sections. These data suggest that CLE could allow the interactive identification of tumor areas, substantially improving intraoperative decisions during the resection of brain tumors.
Keywords: CLE = confocal laser endomicroscopy; FN = false negative; FNa = fluorescein sodium; FP = false positive; H & E = hematoxylin and eosin; TN = true negative; TP = true positive; WHO = World Health Organization; confocal laser endomicroscopy; fluorescein sodium; frozen section; intracranial neoplasms; tumor fluorescence.