Purpose: This trial assessed the efficacy and safety of docetaxel monotherapy or docetaxel in combination with ramucirumab (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 antibody) or icrucumab (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 antibody) after progression during or within 12 months of platinum-based regimens for patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma.
Patients and methods: Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) intravenously (IV) on day 1 of a 3-week cycle (arm A), docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) IV plus ramucirumab 10 mg/kg IV on day 1 of a 3-week cycle (arm B), or docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) IV on day 1 plus icrucumab 12 mg/kg IV on days 1 and 8 of a 3-week cycle (arm C). Treatment continued until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary end point was investigator-assessed progression-free survival (PFS).
Results: A total of 140 patients were randomly assigned and treated in arms A (n = 45), B (n = 46), or C (n = 49). PFS was significantly longer in arm B compared with arm A (median, 5.4 months; 95% CI, 3.1 to 6.9 months v 2.8 months; 95% CI, 1.9 to 3.6 months; stratified hazard ratio, 0.389; 95% CI, 0.235 to 0.643; P = .0002). Arm C did not experience improved PFS compared with arm A (1.6 months; 95% CI, 1.4 to 2.9; stratified hazard ratio, 0.863; 95% CI, 0.550 to 1.357; P = .5053). The most common grade 3 or worse adverse events (arms A, B, and C) were neutropenia (36%, 33%, and 39%), fatigue (13%, 30%, and 20%), febrile neutropenia (13%, 17%, and 6.1%), and anemia (6.7%, 13%, and 14%, respectively).
Conclusion: The addition of ramucirumab to docetaxel met the prespecified efficacy end point for prolonging PFS in patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma receiving second-line treatment and warrants further investigation in the phase III setting.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01282463.
© 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.