Anti-inflammatory, Anti-estrogenic, and Anti-implantation Activity of Bergia suffruticosa (Delile) Fenzl

Pharmacogn Mag. 2015 Oct;11(Suppl 3):S407-13. doi: 10.4103/0973-1296.168973.

Abstract

Background: Bergia suffruticosa (Delile) Fenzl (Syn. Bergia odorata Edgew) (Elatinaceae family) is used traditionally to repair bones and is applied as a poultice on sores. It is also used for stomach troubles and as an antidote to scorpion stings. So far, very little scientific work has been reported to validate its ethnomedical uses in the alleviation of pain, bone repair, etc.

Objective: This study was designed to explore the anti-inflammatory and anti-implantation potential of n-hexane extract of B. suffruticosa whole plant in mice along with identification of its chemical constituents.

Materials and methods: n-Hexane extract of B. suffruticosa whole plant was screened for acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity followed by an anti-estrogenic activity. Eventually, n-hexane extract was tested for anti-implantation activity by exploiting markers of uterine receptivity, lipid peroxidation, and superoxide enzyme activity. The extract was administered orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight in each study.

Results: Thin layer chromatography fingerprint profile of n-hexane extract revealed the presence of lupeol and β-sitosterol. The n-hexane extract reduced the edema by 80% in acute inflammation, whereas it reduced edema to 75% on the 5(th) day in chronic inflammation. The n-hexane extract reduced elevated malonaldehyde level from 6 to 2.5 nmol/g × 10(-5) and increased superoxide dismutase enzyme activity from 0 to 350 units/g in treated animals on the 5(th) day of pregnancy. Moreover, extract decreased uterine weight from 0.33 to 0.2 g in estradiol treated animals.

Conclusion: These results indicate that n-hexane extract of B. suffruticosa is having potent anti-inflammatory, anti-estrogenic, and anti-implantation activity. This is the first report of all the pharmacological activities of B. suffruticosa mentioned above.

Summary: TLC fingerprint profile of n-hexane extract of Bergia suffruticosa whole plant revealed the presence of lupeol and β-sitosteroln-Hexane extract showed in vivo anti-inflammatory activity in both acute and chronic model of inflammation in ratsn-Hexane extract possess significant anti-estrogenic activityn-Hexane extract altered the levels superoxide anion radical and superoxide dismutase enzyme activity during the blastocyst implantationAnti-implantation activity of n-hexane extract is attributed to its anti-inflammatory and anti-estrogenic potential. Abbreviations used: TLC: Thin layer chromatography; LPO: Lipid peroxidation; SOD: Superoxide dismutase; B. suffruticosa: Bergia suffruticosa; TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor-α; NO: Nitric oxide; IL-1: Interleukin-1; LIF: Leukemia inhibitory factor; CSF-1: Colony-stimulating factor; COX: Cyclooxygenase; SDS: Sodium dodecyl sulfate; IAEC: Animal House Ethics Committee; CPCSEA: Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals; HBSS: Hank's balanced salt solution; MDA: Malonaldehyde; and TBA: Thiobarbituric acid.

Keywords: Carrageenan and formalin induced inflammation; lipid peroxidation; lupeol; superoxide dismutase; β-sitosterol.