In healthy lungs, many macrophages are characterized by IL-10 production, and few are characterized by expression of IFN regulatory factor 5 (formerly M1) or YM1 and/or CD206 (formerly M2), whereas in asthma, this balance shifts toward few producing IL-10 and many expressing IFN regulatory factor 5 or YM1/CD206. In this study, we tested whether redressing the balance by reinstating IL-10 production could prevent house dust mite-induced allergic lung inflammation. PGE2 was found to be the best inducer of IL-10 in macrophages in vitro. Mice were then sensitized and challenged to house dust mites during a 2 wk protocol while treated with PGE2 in different ways. Lung inflammation was assessed 3 d after the last house dust mite challenge. House dust mite-exposed mice treated with free PGE2 had fewer infiltrating eosinophils in lungs and lower YM1 serum levels than vehicle-treated mice. Macrophage-specific delivery of PGE2 did not affect lung inflammation. Adoptive transfer of PGE2-treated macrophages led to fewer infiltrating eosinophils, macrophages, (activated) CD4(+), and regulatory T lymphocytes in lungs. Our study shows that the redirection of macrophage polarization by using PGE2 inhibits development of allergic lung inflammation. This beneficial effect of macrophage repolarization is a novel avenue to explore for therapeutic purposes.
Keywords: alveolar; asthma; embryonic; hematopoietic; targeting.
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