Background: The Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program (TSAP) estimated adjusted incidence rates (IRs) for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and invasive nontyphoidal S. enterica serovars (iNTS) of >100 cases per 100 000 person-years of observation (PYO) for children aged <15 years in Asante Akim North Municipal (AAN), Ghana, between March 2010 and May 2012. We analyzed how much these rates differed between rural and urban settings.
Methods: Children recruited at the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital and meeting TSAP inclusion criteria were included in the analysis. Towns with >32 000 inhabitants were considered urban; towns with populations <5200 were considered rural. Adjusted IRs for Salmonella bloodstream infections were estimated for both settings. Setting-specific age-standardized incidence rates for children aged <15 years were derived and used to calculate age-standardized rate ratios (SRRs) to evaluate differences between settings.
Results: Eighty-eight percent (2651/3000) of recruited patients met inclusion criteria and were analyzed. IRs of Salmonella bloodstream infections in children <15 years old were >100 per 100 000 PYO in both settings. Among rural children, the Salmonella Typhi and iNTS rates were 2 times (SRR, 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-3.5) and almost 3 times (SRR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.9-4.3) higher, respectively, than rates in urban children.
Conclusions: IRs of Salmonella bloodstream infections in children <15 years old in AAN, Ghana, differed by setting, with 2 to nearly 3 times higher rates in the less populated setting. Variations in the distribution of the disease should be considered to implement future studies and intervention strategies.
Keywords: Ghana; Salmonella; rates; rural; urban.
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