Retina. 2016 Sep;36(9):1679-87. doi: 10.1097/IAE.0000000000000999.


Purpose: To investigate the clinical features and surgical outcomes in patients with epiretinal membrane-induced full-thickness macular holes (FTMHs).

Methods: Consecutive cases with epiretinal membrane-induced FTMH followed by a single surgeon were retrospectively reviewed (study group, 24 cases). The criteria of epiretinal membrane-induced FTMH selection were 1) documented lamellar macular hole before FTMH formation, 2) FTMH with lamellar hole-associated epiretinal proliferation at the hole edge, and 3) FTMH with wider inner opening and narrower base. Consecutively treated Stage 2 (Control A, 20 cases) and Stage 4 (Control B, 22 cases) MH patients served as controls. All patients were followed up for at least 12 months after treatment.

Results: Patients in the study group were younger and had a higher rate of high myopia than Controls A and B. The average hole size (203.6 ± 104.9 μm) was similar to that in Control A group and smaller than that in Control B group; the postoperative visual improvement (2-3 lines in Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study) was lower than that in Control A and B groups. Similar results were found when excluding high myopia cases from the study group.

Conclusion: Epiretinal membrane-induced FTMH has distinct features from the typical Stage 2 or 4 FTMH. Despite the small size, visual improvement is not as good as that in Stage 2 FTMH.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Chondroitin Sulfates / administration & dosage
  • Coloring Agents / administration & dosage
  • Drug Combinations
  • Endotamponade*
  • Epiretinal Membrane / complications*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Hyaluronic Acid / administration & dosage
  • Indocyanine Green / administration & dosage
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myopia, Degenerative / diagnosis
  • Retinal Perforations* / diagnosis
  • Retinal Perforations* / etiology
  • Retinal Perforations* / surgery
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Tomography, Optical Coherence
  • Visual Acuity / physiology
  • Vitrectomy*


  • Coloring Agents
  • Drug Combinations
  • chondroitin sulfate, sodium hyaluronate drug combination
  • Hyaluronic Acid
  • Chondroitin Sulfates
  • Indocyanine Green