Three broad-host-range plasmids (pRK290, pSa4 and pKT230) and one native Pasteurella haemolytica plasmid (pPH33) were used in transformation experiments with P. haemolytica strains T179 (serotype A1), Y216 (serotype A2) and its capsular-deficient variant Y216/NS1. No transformants were detected with either heat-shock or freeze-thaw techniques. However, by electroporation, all P. haemolytica strains were transformed by pPH33 but not by pRK290 or pSa4. The highest frequency obtained was 91 x 10(4) transformants per microgram of pPH33 DNA with P. haemolytica strain Y216/NS1. Although pPH33 itself was non-transmissible by conjugation, it could be mobilized from Escherichia coli, using the transfer function of the IncP plasmid pRK2013, into P. haemolytica at a frequency of 0.3-2.2 x 10(-3) per recipient cell.