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Review
, 6 (1), 66-75

Saliva as a Diagnostic Tool for Oral and Systemic Diseases

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Review

Saliva as a Diagnostic Tool for Oral and Systemic Diseases

Mohammad A Javaid et al. J Oral Biol Craniofac Res.

Abstract

Early disease detection is not only vital to reduce disease severity and prevent complications, but also critical to increase success rate of therapy. Saliva has been studied extensively as a potential diagnostic tool over the last decade due to its ease and non-invasive accessibility along with its abundance of biomarkers, such as genetic material and proteins. This review will update the clinician on recent advances in salivary biomarkers to diagnose autoimmune diseases (Sjogren's syndrome, cystic fibrosis), cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, HIV, oral cancer, caries and periodontal diseases. Considering their accuracy, efficacy, ease of use and cost effectiveness, salivary diagnostic tests will be available in dental offices. It is expected that the advent of sensitive and specific salivary diagnostic tools and the establishment of defined guidelines and results following rigorous testing will allow salivary diagnostics to be used as chair-side tests for several oral and systemic diseases in the near future.

Keywords: Diagnostics; Saliva; Salivary.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Schematic diagram illustrating key routes through which serum molecules enter saliva. This movement of constituents makes saliva functionally equal to serum for potential diagnosis of various diseases.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
(a) Salivary test kit used to detect presence of HPV-16 associated with OSCC, levels of periodontal pathogens, and/or to determine genotypic status of IL-6 associated with periodontitis (Oral DNA® Labs, Eden Prairie, U.S.A.). (b) Sterile tube filled with saline on left. After swishing for 30 s, the patient spits in the tube with the funnel on right. The funnel is then unscrewed and the red cap, once screwed on, will seal the collection tube. It is then identified and shipped by priority mail for analysis.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
Sample of a report for OraRisk® HPV test.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4
(a) and (b) Sample of a two-page report for MyPerioPath®.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4
(a) and (b) Sample of a two-page report for MyPerioPath®.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5
Sample of a report for MyPerioID®.

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