Objective: To evaluate maternal co-morbidities and adverse perinatal outcomes associated with cystic fibrosis (CF).
Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study of 2 178 954 singleton pregnancies at ≥20 weeks' gestation with and without CF in the state of California during the years 2005-2008. ICD-9 codes and linked hospital discharge and vital statistics data were utilized. Rates of maternal co-morbidities, fetal congenital anomalies and adverse perinatal outcomes were compared in those with CF and those without. Maternal co-morbidities included gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes and primary cesarean delivery. Perinatal outcomes included neonatal demise, preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, macrosomia, anomaly, fetal demise, asphyxia, respiratory distress syndrome, jaundice, intraventricular hemorrhage, hypoglycemia and necrotizing enterocolitis.
Results: The cohort included 2 178 954 pregnancies of which 77 mothers had CF. Mothers with CF were more likely to have pre-gestational diabetes and had higher rates of primary cesarean delivery. Neonates delivered to mothers with CF were more likely to be born preterm and have congenital anomalies but otherwise were not at increased risk for significant neonatal morbidity or mortality when adjusted for gestational age.
Conclusion: Mothers with CF are more likely to have pre-gestational diabetes, deliver preterm (<37 weeks gestation) and have a primary cesarean delivery. Infants are more likely to have congenital anomalies. In addition to early diabetic screening and genetic counseling, a detailed fetal anatomy ultrasound should be performed in women with CF.
Keywords: Congenital anomalies; cystic fibrosis; preterm delivery.