Universal Cystoscopy After Benign Hysterectomy: Examining the Effects of an Institutional Policy

Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Feb;127(2):369-75. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000001271.


Objective: To evaluate the association between a universal cystoscopy policy at the time of benign hysterectomy and the detection of urologic injuries.

Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study at a tertiary care academic center where a policy of universal cystoscopy at the time of benign hysterectomy was instituted on October 1, 2008. Benign hysterectomies performed from March 3, 2006, to September 25, 2013, were included and dichotomized into preuniversal and postuniversal cystoscopy groups. Medical records were reviewed for baseline and perioperative characteristics, cystoscopy use, and urologic injuries related to hysterectomy. Urologic injuries were identified by using a search engine and a departmental quality improvement database.

Results: Two thousand nine hundred eighteen hysterectomies were identified during the study time period, 96 of which were excluded for indications of abdominopelvic cancers and peripartum indications. Therefore, 973 women were in the preuniversal cystoscopy group and 1,849 were in the postuniversal cystoscopy group. Thirty-six percent (347/973, 95% confidence interval [CI] 32.8-38.8%) and 86.1% (1,592/1,849, 95% CI 84.5-87.7%) of patients underwent cystoscopy prepolicy and postpolicy, respectively. The urologic injury rates were 2.6% (25/973, 95% CI 1.6-3.6%) and 1.8% (34/1,849, 95% CI 1.2-2.5%) in the prepolicy and postpolicy groups, respectively. Delayed urologic injuries decreased significantly (0.7% [7/973], 95% CI 0.3-1.2% compared with 0.1% [2/1,849], 95% CI 0.0-0.3%). Of the nine patients with delayed injuries, four had normal intraoperative cystoscopy findings and five had no cystoscopy performed.

Conclusion: The practice of universal cystoscopy at the time of hysterectomy for benign indications is associated with decreased delayed postoperative urologic complications.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Academic Medical Centers
  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Aged
  • Cohort Studies
  • Confidence Intervals
  • Cystoscopy / standards*
  • Cystoscopy / statistics & numerical data
  • Databases, Factual
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Hysterectomy / adverse effects*
  • Hysterectomy / methods
  • Intraoperative Complications / diagnosis*
  • Intraoperative Complications / epidemiology
  • Middle Aged
  • Organizational Policy
  • Postoperative Complications / diagnosis
  • Postoperative Complications / epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Assessment
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Urinary Bladder / injuries*
  • Uterine Diseases / pathology
  • Uterine Diseases / surgery*