YKL-40 is a CSF biomarker of intrathecal inflammation in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis

J Neuroimmunol. 2016 Mar 15;292:52-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2016.01.013. Epub 2016 Jan 22.


YKL-40 (CHI3L1) is a glycoprotein predominantly produced by reactive astrocytes in chronic active MS lesions, which are common in secondary progressive MS. In this study, YKL-40 was investigated in different stages of MS and in relation to MRI findings. YKL-40 levels in CSF samples from two independent patient cohorts of MS patients were determined with ELISA. CSF YKL-40 was increased in patients with active relapsing-remitting MS and correlated with the number of gadolinium enhancing lesions. Patients with secondary progressive MS had similar high levels of YKL-40, whereas not active relapsing-remitting MS patients had YKL-40 levels comparable to healthy controls.

Keywords: Biomarker; GFAp; MRI; Multiple sclerosis; SF; YKL-40; sCD14.

MeSH terms

  • Adipokines / cerebrospinal fluid*
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Astrocytes / metabolism
  • Astrocytes / pathology
  • Brain / pathology
  • Chitinase-3-Like Protein 1
  • Cohort Studies
  • Disability Evaluation
  • Female
  • Gadolinium / metabolism
  • Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
  • Humans
  • Lectins / cerebrospinal fluid*
  • Lipopolysaccharide Receptors / cerebrospinal fluid
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive / cerebrospinal fluid*
  • Multiple Sclerosis, Chronic Progressive / pathology*


  • Adipokines
  • CHI3L1 protein, human
  • Chitinase-3-Like Protein 1
  • Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
  • Lectins
  • Lipopolysaccharide Receptors
  • Gadolinium